The UK has one of the highest rates of death from heart disease in the world - one British adult dies from the disease every three minutes - and stroke is the country's third biggest killer, claiming 70,000 lives each year. Heart attacks occur when blood flow is blocked, often by a blood clot, while strokes are caused either by blocked or burst blood vessels in the brain.
Heart disease and stroke may be inherited, but often they are the result of lifestyle. Changing eating, exercise and smoking habits can play a significant part in prevention.
Age - Four out of five people who die from coronary heart disease are aged 65 or older. The risk of stroke doubles with each decade after the age of 55.
Sex - Men are more at risk than women and have attacks earlier in life. But death rates from heart disease and stroke for women are twice as high as those for all forms of cancer. The risk for women increases as they approach menopause and continues to rise, as they get older, possibly because of the loss of the natural hormone oestrogen.
Family History (heredity) - Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to suffer from the disease. Some races, such as Afro-Caribbeans, are more prone to coronary heart disease and stroke than others.
Smoking - Smokers are twice as likely to suffer heart attacks as non-smokers, and they are more likely to die as a result. Smoking is also linked to increased risk of stroke. The nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke damages the cardiovascular system. Passive smoking may also be a danger. Women who smoke and take the oral contraceptive pill are at high risk of heart disease and stroke.
Alcohol - Drinking an average of more than one drink a day for women or more than two drinks a day for men increases the risk of heart disease and stroke because of the effect on blood pressure, weight and levels of triglycerides - a type of fat carried in the blood. Binge drinking is particularly dangerous.
Drug Abuse - The use of certain drugs, particularly cocaine and those taken intravenously, has been linked to heart disease and stroke. Cocaine can cause abnormal heartbeat, which can be fatal, while heroin and opiates can cause lung failure. Injecting drugs can cause an infection of the heart or blood vessels.
Cholesterol - The higher the blood cholesterol level, the higher the risk of coronary heart disease, particularly if it is combined with any of the other risk factors. Diet is one cause of high cholesterol - others are age, sex and family history. High levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), or "bad cholesterol", are dangerous, while high levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or "good cholesterol" lowers the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Blood Pressure - High blood pressure increases the heart's workload, causing it to enlarge and weaken over time. When combined with obesity, smoking, high cholesterol or diabetes, the risk increases several times. High blood pressure can be a problem in women who are pregnant or are taking high-dose types of oral contraceptive pill.
Physical Inactivity - Failure to exercise is a cause of coronary heart disease as physical activity helps control cholesterol levels, diabetes and, in some cases, can help lower blood pressure.
Obesity - People who are overweight are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke, even if they have none of the other risk factors. Excess weight causes extra strain on the heart, influences blood pressure, cholesterol and levels of other blood fats - including triglycerides - and increases the risk of developing diabetes
Diabetes - The condition seriously increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, even if glucose levels are under control. More than 80% of diabetes sufferers die of some form of heart or blood vessel disease.
Previous Medical History - People who have had a previous heart attack or stroke are more likely than others to suffer further events.
Stress - Some links have been made between stress and coronary artery disease. This could be because it encourages people to eat more, start smoking or smoke more than they would otherwise have done.
Understand the risk factors of heart disease and stroke and adopt a healthier lifestyle.
Stop smoking, drink less, eat better and exercise regularly.
Have regular blood pressure readings, height and weight monitoring, and tests for cholesterol levels.
Ask your GP if you have any concerns
People with heart disease and their partners are often understandably anxious about how sex may affect the heart.
Many people with heart conditions continue to enjoy sex and for those people who have undergone a treatment for their heart condition, most of them are able to return to their sex life.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle, making it abnormal with no obvious cause. There are four main types of cardiomyopathy:
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
A crushing central chest pain, like a heavy weight on the chest
The pain may spread to or just affect the arms (particularly the left), the throat, neck, jaw, back or stomach
The pain is usually severe, grows in intensity and lasts more than 15 minutes
Weakness or fainting
Breathlessness, sickness and vomiting, sweating, pallor
The pain does not go away with rest
Even if you have doubts about the cause or exact location of your pain, if you experience any of these symptoms seek help immediately by phoning 999 for an ambulance and calling your doctor
The pain typically occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress
The pain occurs below the breastbone and is often described as a heavy, dull, tight, squeezing, burning discomfort
It may radiate to or just affect the arms (but particularly the left), the throat, jaw, back and stomach
Attacks of stable angina, or angina that usually only occurs after physical exertion, may last from 2-10 minutes and are generally relieved by resting or with a glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) spray.